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美媒:吸烟在全球退潮

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年07月16日 17:20:29
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(  参)(考)(消)(息)(网)(12月)(21日)(报)(道)(外)(媒)(称)(,为)(中)(国)(3亿)(烟)(民)(服)(务)(的)(中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(迄)(今)(为)(止)(是)(世)(界)(最)(大)(的)(香)(烟)(生)(产)(商)(,2013年)(生)(产)(了)(约)(2·5万)(亿)(支)(香)(烟)(,其)(最)(大)(的)(竞)(争)(对)(手)(菲)(利)(普)(·莫)(里)(斯)(国)(际)(公)(司)(生)(产)(了)(8800亿)(支)(。
  据)(美)(国)(《商)(业)(周)(刊)(》网)(站)(12月)(11日)(报)(道)(,按)(市)(场)(份)(额)(看)(,中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(比)(排)(在)(其)(后)(面)(的)(五)(位)(竞)(争)(对)(手)(加)(在)(一)(起)(的)(总)(和)(还)(大)(;其)(日)(益)(增)(长)(的)(销)(售)(量)(是)(全)(球)(生)(产)(净)(增)(长)(的)(主)(要)(原)(因)(,但)(其)(竞)(争)(对)(手)(的)(烟)(草)(生)(产)(已)(经)(下)(降)(。尽)(管)(“万)(宝)(路)(”香)(烟)(仍)(是)(世)(界)(上)(最)(受)(欢)(迎)(的)(品)(牌)(,但)(中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(以)(世)(界)(最)(大)(10个)(品)(牌)(中)(它)(占)(有)(7个)(而)(感)(到)(自)(豪)(,其)(中)(包)(括)(“红)(塔)(山)(牌)(”和)(“红)(双)(喜)(牌)(”香)(烟)(。根)(据)(市)(场)(调)(查)(公)(司)(欧)(睿)(信)(息)(咨)(询)(公)(司)(提)(供)(的)(数)(据)(,去)(年)(全)(球)(每)(100支)(香)(烟)(中)(,就)(有)(43支)(出)(自)(中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(。尽)(管)(该)(公)(司)(规)(模)(巨)(大)(,但)(国)(外)(很)(少)(有)(人)(知)(道)(它)(:几)(乎)(其)(所)(有)(的)(香)(烟)(都)(在)(本)(国)(销)(售)(,且)(在)(国)(内)(根)(本)(没)(有)(竞)(争)(对)(手)(。
  报)(道)(称)(,与)(过)(去)(的)(海)(湾)(和)(西)(方)(公)(司)(相)(似)(,中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(是)(一)(个)(经)(营)(160多)(个)(香)(烟)(品)(牌)(的)(联)(合)(大)(企)(业)(,在)(全)(国)(各)(地)(约)(100个)(工)(厂)(进)(行)(生)(产)(,而)(且)(利)(用)(其)(收)(入)(投)(资)(于)(银)(行)(、豪)(华)(酒)(店)(、水)(电)(站)(、高)(尔)(夫)(球)(场)(,甚)(至)(是)(制)(药)(厂)(。大)(部)(分)(盈)(利)(都)(归)(其)(所)(有)(者)(中)(国)(政)(府)(;烟)(草)(业)(的)(收)(入)(约)(占)(国)(家)(年)(收)(入)(的)(7%,而)(且)(烟)(草)(公)(司)(控)(制)(了)(市)(场)(98%的)(份)(额)(。中)(国)(烟)(草)(业)(雇)(佣)(的)(工)(人)(总)(共)(达)(50多)(万)(。根)(据)(政)(府)(的)(数)(据)(,他)(们)(是)(从)(烟)(草)(中)(获)(得)(收)(入)(的)(约)(2000万)(人)(中)(的)(一)(部)(分)(,2000万)(人)(中)(包)(括)(130万)(农)(户)(和)(500万)(个)(零)(售)(商)(的)(工)(人)(。中)(国)(政)(府)(与)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(的)(财)(富)(密)(切)(关)(联)(,该)(公)(司)(在)(学)(校)(的)(“存)(在)(”或)(许)(可)(以)(最)(充)(分)(地)(说)(明)(其)(关)(联)(的)(程)(度)(。在)(其)(资)(助)(的)(小)(学)(校)(门)(口)(张)(贴)(的)(标)(语)(上)(说)(,“天)(才)(出)(于)(勤)(奋)(,烟)(草)(助)(你)(成)(才)(”。
  报)(道)(称)(,中)(国)(政)(府)(把)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(作)(为)(一)(个)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(不)(透)(明)(的)(垄)(断)(集)(团)(进)(行)(经)(营)(管)(理)(。该)(公)(司)(通)(过)(限)(制)(进)(口)(或)(外)(国)(公)(司)(在)(中)(国)(国)(内)(生)(产)(,成)(功)(地)(阻)(止)(了)(西)(方)(烟)(草)(公)(司)(的)(竞)(争)(。在)(过)(去)(十)(年)(中)(,吸)(烟)(潮)(流)(在)(世)(界)(其)(它)(地)(方)(大)(幅)(衰)(减)(了)(,中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(却)(一)(路)(高)(歌)(,乘)(机)(攫)(取)(市)(场)(份)(额)(,创)(大)(品)(牌)(。它)(在)(2012年)(创)(收)(约)(1700亿)(美)(元)(,超)(过)(了)(苹)(果)(公)(司)(。
  尽)(管)(其)(香)(烟)(产)(量)(的)(增)(速)(已)(放)(缓)(,但)(该)(公)(司)(正)(采)(用)(与)(其)(西)(方)(竞)(争)(对)(手)(相)(同)(的)(手)(段)(——推)(出)(高)(端)(品)(牌)(——赚)(取)(比)(以)(往)(更)(多)(的)(利)(润)(。这)(些)(高)(档)(香)(烟)(有)(的)(是)(低)(焦)(油)(的)(,有)(的)(是)(有)(机)(烟)(,有)(的)(标)(明)(是)(来)(自)(美)(国)(农)(场)(的)(烟)(草)(。美)(国)(农)(场)(的)(财)(运)(与)(中)(国)(的)(需)(求)(一)(起)(上)(升)(。但)(中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(现)(在)(面)(临)(从)(未)(有)(过)(的)(挑)(战)(。面)(对)(越)(来)(越)(多)(的)(人)(死)(于)(与)(吸)(烟)(有)(关)(的)(疾)(病)(,去)(年)(中)(国)(政)(府)(发)(布)(了)(一)(系)(列)(限)(制)(吸)(烟)(的)(政)(令)(,并)(提)(出)(改)(革)(举)(措)(。
  报)(道)(称)(,中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(似)(乎)(并)(不)(太)(担)(忧)(,也)(不)(公)(开)(其)(员)(工)(的)(薪)(酬)(。记)(者)(找)(到)(的)(极)(少)(资)(料)(和)(媒)(体)(报)(道)(表)(明)(,他)(们)(的)(收)(入)(大)(大)(高)(于)(大)(多)(数)(中)(国)(人)(。譬)(如)(,据)(江)(苏)(省)(的)(一)(篇)(报)(道)(说)(,2011年)(烟)(厂)(工)(人)(的)(人)(均)(年)(收)(入)(为)(1.88万)(美)(元)(——超)(过)(了)(除)(证)(券)(业)(以)(外)(的)(任)(何)(行)(业)(。
  中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(正)(寻)(找)(其)(它)(新)(途)(径)(赚)(钱)(,譬)(如)(在)(把)(吸)(烟)(当)(成)(一)(种)(身)(份)(象)(征)(的)(中)(国)(新)(贵)(群)(体)(中)(兜)(售)(香)(烟)(。它)(与)(菲)(利)(普)(·莫)(里)(斯)(国)(际)(公)(司)(和)(英)(美)(烟)(草)(公)(司)(达)(成)(了)(协)(议)(,旨)(在)(向)(海)(外)(推)(销)(中)(国)(的)(香)(烟)(。根)(据)(《信)(报)(财)(经)(新)(闻)(》8月)(11日)(的)(一)(篇)(文)(章)(,其)(监)(管)(机)(构)(正)(在)(游)(说)(,以)(承)(担)(对)(越)(来)(越)(兴)(旺)(的)(电)(子)(烟)(市)(场)(的)(监)(管)(。
  中)(国)(疾)(病)(预)(防)(控)(制)(中)(心)(前)(副)(主)(任)(杨)(功)(焕)(称)(,中)(国)(的)(烟)(草)(控)(制)(,利)(益)(关)(系)(非)(常)(复)(杂)(。
  报)(道)(称)(,一)(些)(支)(持)(控)(烟)(的)(人)(认)(为)(中)(国)(领)(导)(人)(最)(终)(可)(能)(会)(越)(来)(越)(重)(视)(控)(烟)(工)(作)((彭)(博)(慈)(善)(事)(业)(支)(持)(中)(国)(国)(内)(通)(过)(公)(共)(卫)(生)(管)(理)(当)(局)(和)(非)(政)(府)(组)(织)(作)(出)(的)(反)(吸)(烟)(努)(力)()。国)(务)(院)(11月)(24日)(公)(布)(一)(个)(草)(案)(,拟)(议)(禁)(止)(各)(类)(香)(烟)(广)(告)(,禁)(止)(在)(公)(共)(场)(所)(室)(内)(吸)(烟)(,并)(要)(求)(警)(示)(标)(识)(要)(占)(香)(烟)(盒)(面)(积)(的)(一)(半)(。世)(界)(卫)(生)(组)(织)(负)(责)(中)(国)(控)(烟)(工)(作)(的)(安)(吉)(拉)(·普)(拉)(特)(说)(,这)(项)(提)(案)(虽)(然)(尚)(未)(得)(到)(批)(准)(,但)(它)(和)(去)(年)(政)(府)(提)(出)(的)(一)(系)(列)(类)(似)(的)(举)(措)(一)(起)(,是)(“前)(所)(未)(有)(的)(进)(步)(”。中)(国)(早)(就)(对)(政)(府)(官)(员)(实)(行)(吸)(烟)(限)(制)(,去)(年)(底)(已)(明)(令)(禁)(止)(他)(们)(在)(公)(共)(场)(合)(抽)(烟)(。去)(年)(11月)(份)(,禁)(止)(公)(共)(场)(所)(室)(内)(吸)(烟)(的)(法)(律)(已)(在)(包)(括)(北)(京)(在)(内)(的)(多)(个)(城)(市)(获)(得)(通)(过)(。
  普)(拉)(特)(在)(12月)(3日)(的)(一)(封)(电)(子)(邮)(件)(中)(写)(道)(:“我)(们)(仍)(有)(很)(长)(的)(路)(要)(走)(,不)(过)(我)(非)(常)(乐)(观)(。”他)(说)(这)(一)(新)(的)(法)(律)(草)(案)(的)(重)(要)(性)(怎)(么)(强)(调)(都)(不)(为)(过)(。
  不)(过)(有)(些)(控)(烟)(措)(施)(仍)(停)(留)(在)(草)(案)(的)(阶)(段)(,而)(且)(中)(国)(领)(导)(人)(继)(续)(反)(对)(提)(高)(烟)(税)(。现)(有)(的)(控)(烟)(法)(律)(往)(往)(执)(行)(不)(力)(,或)(留)(给)(热)(心)(的)(志)(愿)(者)(去)(想)(办)(法)(。在)(上)(海)(,市)(政)(府)(依)(靠)(1800名)(志)(愿)(者)(帮)(助)(监)(督)(禁)(烟)(令)(。最)(近)(,在)(上)(海)(杨)(浦)(区)(的)(早)(晨)(巡)(查)(中)(,一)(位)(名)(叫)(张)(悦)(萌)((音)()的)(志)(愿)(者)(走)(进)(了)(一)(家)(烟)(雾)(缭)(绕)(的)(网)(吧)(。她)(看)(见)(两)(个)(年)(轻)(人)(坐)(在)(一)(起)(打)(牌)(。张)(悦)(萌)(上)(前)(细)(看)(,每)(人)(前)(边)(都)(有)(一)(包)(“红)(双)(喜)(”和)(一)(个)(打)(火)(机)(。她)(警)(告)(他)(们)(不)(要)(抽)(烟)(。
  张)(悦)(萌)(每)(个)(月)(到)(咖)(啡)(屋)(、酒)(店)(和)(政)(府)(办)(公)(室)(巡)(查)(三)(四)(次)(。她)(身)(着)(粉)(红)(色)(体)(恤)(,脖)(子)(上)(挂)(一)(个)(标)(明)(“控)(烟)(监)(督)(员)(”工)(作)(牌)(。志)(愿)(者)(取)(得)(了)(一)(定)(的)(成)(就)(:去)(年)(,首)(次)(有)(8个)(政)(府)(机)(构)(因)(未)(执)(行)(禁)(烟)(令)(而)(受)(到)(处)(罚)(。另)(一)(位)(志)(愿)(者)(张)(兰)((音)()说)(:“情)(况)(在)(好)(转)(。但)(单)(靠)(志)(愿)(者)(不)(足)(以)(解)(决)(根)(本)(问)(题)(。”(编)(译)(/宋)(彩)(萍)()
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