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专家解读西汉巨量黄金消失:开采量骤降

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年12月08日 15:21:52
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(  从)(消)(费)(和)(生)(产)(来)(考)(量)(,金)(矿)(开)(采)(量)(的)(减)(少)(是)(导)(致)(东)(汉)(黄)(金)(不)(及)(西)(汉)(的)(重)(要)(原)(因)(  黄)(金)(在)(历)(朝)(历)(代)(的)(重)(复)(使)(用)(,后)(世)(墓)(葬)(即)(使)(发)(掘)(了)(,如)(今)(也)(没)(法)(甄)(别)(其)(“生)(于)(何)(时)(”  北)(京)(师)(范)(大)(学)(政)(府)(管)(理)(研)(究)(院)(教)(授)(唐)(任)(伍)(曾)(在)( 《西)(汉)(巨)(量)(黄)(金)(消)(失)(之)(谜)(考)(》一)(文)(中)(指)(出)(,西)(汉)(巨)(量)(黄)(金)(突)(然)(消)(失)(,惟)(一)(的)(答)(案)(就)(是)(黄)(金)(作)(为)(各)(种)(金)(器)(金)(物)(随)(葬)(或)(遗)(落)(地)(下)(。西)(汉)(末)(年)(,天)(下)(大)(乱)(,窖)(藏)(大)(量)(黄)(金)(的)(富)(豪)(官)(吏)(,或)(死)(或)(逃)(,使)(其)(窖)(藏)(的)(黄)(金)(遁)(于)(世)(。  对)(此)(,中)(国)(考)(古)(学)(会)(秦)(汉)(考)(古)(专)(业)(委)(员)(会)(常)(务)(副)(主)(任)(、中)(国)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(考)(古)(研)(究)(所)(副)(所)(长)(白)(云)(翔)(说)(,随)(葬)(在)(墓)(中)(,只)(是)(其)(中)(一)(个)(重)(要)(原)(因)(,海)(昏)(侯)(墓)(的)(发)(掘)(就)(是)(实)(证)(。但)(西)(汉)(黄)(金)(数)(量)(如)(此)(巨)(大)(,不)(可)(能)(全)(部)(埋)(藏)(地)(下)(。“简)(单)(来)(说)(,皇)(室)(贵)(族)(和)(朝)(廷)(高)(官)(用)(黄)(金)(陪)(葬)(很)(容)(易)(理)(解)(,但)(就)(平)(民)(来)(说)(,有)(黄)(金)(也)(不)(可)(能)(用)(来)(陪)(葬)(。”  开)(采)(量)(骤)(降)(或)(是)(主)(因)(  据)(白)(云)(翔)(推)(断)(,最)(有)(可)(能)(导)(致)(东)(汉)(黄)(金)(数)(量)(大)(幅)(骤)(减)(的)(原)(因)(在)(于)(,黄)(金)(开)(采)(量)(本)(身)(的)(减)(少)(。为)(什)(么)(开)(采)(量)(会)(骤)(减)(? 可)(以)(从)(需)(求)(和)(供)(给)(两)(方)(面)(来)(考)(量)(。  从)(需)(求)(层)(面)(来)(看)(,西)(汉)(时)(期)(,非)(常)(注)(重)(丧)(葬)(制)(度)(,强)(调)(“事)(死)(如)(事)(生)(”。时)(至)(东)(汉)(,尽)(管)(同)(样)(强)(调)(“事)(死)(如)(事)(生)(”,但)(这)(种)(观)(念)(在)(弱)(化)(,东)(汉)(墓)(葬)(出)(土)(的)(冥)(器)(日)(渐)(增)(多)(,说)(明)(黄)(金)(作)(为)(厚)(葬)(“必)(备)(品)(”的)(地)(位)(在)(不)(断)(下)(降)(。  同)(时)(,东)(汉)(年)(间)(,酎)(金)(制)(度)(仍)(在)(继)(续)(,但)(早)(已)(不)(像)(西)(汉)(那)(么)(严)(苛)(。汉)(武)(帝)(因)(为)(酎)(金)(成)(色)(不)(足)(削)(藩)(106位)(侯)(王)(的)(事)(情)(,再)(也)(没)(有)(发)(生)(。  “我)(相)(信)(,到)(了)(东)(汉)(时)(期)(,金)(矿)(的)(开)(采)(和)(黄)(金)(的)(冶)(炼)(技)(术)(已)(经)(不)(是)(什)(么)(高)(科)(技)(,但)(既)(然)(社)(会)(上)(不)(需)(要)(那)(么)(多)(黄)(金)(,自)(然)(就)(没)(有)(人)(去)(开)(采)(冶)(炼)(了)(。”白)(云)(翔)(强)(调)(说)(,需)(求)(减)(少)(影)(响)(供)(给)(,供)(给)(减)(少)(也)(会)(抑)(制)(需)(求)(。  从)(供)(给)(层)(面)(来)(看)(,西)(汉)(如)(火)(如)(荼)(的)(金)(矿)(开)(采)(,究)(竟)(是)(因)(为)(王)(莽)(新)(朝)(战)(乱)(而)(“关)(停)(并)(转)(”,还)(是)(凭)(借)(当)(时)(的)(技)(术)(,可)(采)(金)(矿)(资)(源)(至)(东)(汉)(已)(濒)(临)(耗)(尽)(,至)(今)(无)(法)(确)(证)(。“个)(人)(推)(测)(,从)(消)(费)(和)(生)(产)(两)(方)(面)(来)(考)(量)(,金)(矿)(开)(采)(量)(的)(减)(少)(是)(导)(致)(东)(汉)(黄)(金)(不)(及)(西)(汉)(的)(重)(要)(原)(因)(。但)(这)(只)(是)(推)(测)(,至)(今)(仍)(没)(有)(找)(到)(相)(关)(的)(遗)(址)(和)(作)(坊)(作)(为)(实)(际)(证)(据)(。”白)(云)(翔)(说)(。  黄)(金)(流)(转)(导)(致)(甄)(别)(困)(难)(  白)(云)(翔)(特)(别)(提)(醒)(说)(,西)(汉)(、东)(汉)(各)(220年)(左)(右)(,黄)(金)(数)(量)(相)(差)(如)(此)(巨)(大)(,是)(不)(是)(真)(的)(少)(了)(?他)(仍)(心)(存)(疑)(虑)(,因)(为)(黄)(金)(存)(在)(一)(个)(流)(转)(问)(题)(。一)(方)(面)(,黄)(金)(作)(为)(贵)(重)(的)(稀)(有)(金)(属)(,经)(长)(期)(积)(累)(,理)(论)(上)(是)(越)(来)(越)(多)(的)(一)(个)(过)(程)(。从)(历)(史)(上)(沿)(袭)(下)(来)(的)(黄)(金)(,不)(会)(凭)(空)(蒸)(发)(。  另)(一)(方)(面)(,出)(土)(的)(黄)(金)(究)(竟)(怎)(么)(断)(代)(、区)(分)(地)(域)(,技)(术)(上)(还)(是)(难)(题)(。从)(已)(发)(掘)(的)(墓)(葬)(来)(看)(,除)(了)(江)(苏)(徐)(州)(楚)(王)(陵)(、河)(南)(永)(成)(芒)(砀)(山)(梁)(王)(陵)(以)(及)(山)(东)(曲)(阜)(鲁)(王)(陵)(之)(外)(,西)(汉)(时)(期)(的)(诸)(侯)(王)(墓)(和)(列)(侯)(墓)(多)(数)(以)(深)(挖)(的)(土)(坑)(或)(石)(坑)(为)(主)(,而)(东)(汉)(改)(变)(了)(这)(种)(传)(统)(,诸)(侯)(王)(和)(列)(侯)(墓)(皆)(以)(砖)(石)(砌)(筑)(的)(砖)(石)(室)(墓)(为)(主)(。  “看)(上)(去)(,好)(像)(西)(汉)(的)(土)(圹)(墓)(不)(及)(东)(汉)(的)(砖)(石)(室)(墓)(牢)(靠)(,实)(际)(不)(然)(。自)(东)(汉)(末)(年)(三)(国)(时)(期)(有)(‘摸)(金)(校)(尉)(,以)(来)(,东)(汉)(墓)(葬)(被)(盗)(十)(分)(严)(重)(。”白)(云)(翔)(说)(,被)(盗)(之)(前)(,东)(汉)(墓)(葬)(中)(是)(不)(是)(有)(大)(量)(金)(器)(,我)(们)(现)(代)(人)(并)(不)(清)(楚)(。“墓)(葬)(中)(到)(底)(有)(没)(有)(巨)(量)(黄)(金)(是)(一)(回)(事)(,但)(考)(古)(有)(没)(有)(发)(现)(,又)(是)(另)(外)(一)(回)(事)(。”据)(粗)(略)(统)(计)(,海)(昏)(侯)(墓)(发)(现)(以)(前)(,全)(国)(考)(古)(发)(现)(的)(西)(汉)(金)(饼)(,总)(共)(也)(不)(过)(几)(百)(枚)(。然)(而)(,仅)(海)(昏)(侯)(主)(墓)(就)(出)(了)(285枚)(金)(饼)(,超)(过)(了)(此)(前)(半)(个)(多)(世)(纪)(发)(现)(总)(数)(的)(三)(分)(之)(二)(。  以)(目)(前)(的)(技)(术)(手)(段)(,黄)(金)(在)(历)(朝)(历)(代)(的)(重)(复)(使)(用)(,东)(汉)(及)(后)(世)(的)(墓)(葬)(即)(使)(发)(掘)(了)(,也)(没)(法)(做)(技)(术)(甄)(别)(。“比)(如)(说)(,隋)(唐)(用)(了)(东)(汉)(窖)(藏)(的)(黄)(金)(,又)(重)(新)(入)(葬)(,今)(人)(只)(会)(认)(为)(这)(是)(隋)(唐)(的)(黄)(金)(。简)(言)(之)(,从)(已)(知)(的)(考)(古)(和)(文)(献)(来)(判)(定)(,东)(汉)(黄)(金)(比)(西)(汉)(黄)(金)(是)(骤)(减)(,但)(看)(不)(到)(不)(等)(于)(没)(有)(了)(。”白)(云)(翔)(说)(,西)(汉)(巨)(量)(黄)(金)(到)(东)(汉)(“消)(失)(”,至)(今)(仍)(是)(未)(解)(之)(谜)(,有)(待)(未)(来)(继)(续)(考)(证)(。
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