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刘柠:周恩来的留东岁月

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2020年01月18日 15:04:22
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(  周)(恩)(来)(在)(日)(本)(名)(气)(极)(大)(,朝)(野)(上)(下)(,粉)(丝)(众)(多)(,历)(来)(被)(视)(为)(蒋)(介)(石)(、戴)(季)(陶)(一)(流)(的)(“亲)(日)(派)(”。而)(这)(一)(切)(盖)(源)(于)(周)(“人)(在)(东)(京)(”的)(一)(段)(日)(子)(。
  1917年)(9月)(,从)(南)(开)(学)(校)(毕)(业)(的)(周)(恩)(来)(,从)(同)(学)(、师)(友)(处)(筹)(措)(了)(一)(笔)(川)(资)(,从)(天)(津)(乘)(船)(赴)(日)(留)(学)(,时)(年)(19岁)(。行)(前)(,为)(同)(学)(郭)(思)(宁)(题)(写)(了)(“愿)(相)(会)(于)(中)(华)(腾)(飞)(世)(界)(时)(”的)(临)(别)(赠)(言)(,并)(写)(了)(一)(首)(七)(言)(诗)(励)(志)(:
  大)(江)(歌)(罢)(掉)(头)(东)(,邃)(密)(群)(科)(济)(世)(穷)(。
  面)(壁)(十)(年)(图)(破)(壁)(,难)(酬)(蹈)(海)(亦)(英)(雄)(。
  作)(为)(江)(浙)(人)(,周)(恩)(来)(与)(周)(作)(人)(一)(样)(,对)(东)(瀛)(的)(生)(活)(从)(一)(开)(始)(就)(很)(适)(应)(,全)(无)(“违)(和)(感)(”。他)(在)(当)(年)(12月)(致)(南)(开)(同)(学)(陈)(颂)(言)(的)(信)(中)(说)(:“食)(日)(本)(餐)(,食)(多)(鱼)(,国)(人)(来)(此)(者)(甚)(不)(惯)(食)(,弟)(则)(甘)(之)(如)(饴)(,大)(似)(吾)(家)(乡)(食)(鱼)(风)(味)(,但)(无)(油)(酱)(烹)(调)(,以)(火)(烤)(者)(居)(多)(。”“日)(本)(风)(俗)(,不)(见)(优)(美)(,好)(在)(谨)(言)(慎)(行)(,无)(不)(可)(居)(之)(地)(。倭)(国)(虽)(小)(,安)(分)(克)(己)(,尚)(无)(不)(合)(式)(也)(。”为)(便)(于)(饮)(食)(,国)(人)(咸)(住)(中)(国)(馆)(,而)(周)(则)(下)(宿)(日)(馆)(,住)(在)(神)(田)(一)(爿)(家)(具)(店)(的)(二)(楼)(,“较)(中)(馆)(清)(静)(,无)(喧)(哗)(声)(,便)(于)(用)(功)(”。10月)(,入)(位)(于)(神)(田)(区)(仲)(猿)(町)(七)(番)(地)(的)(东)(亚)(高)(等)(预)(备)(学)(校)(,补)(习)(日)(文)(,准)(备)(参)(加)(官)(费)(考)(试)(。按)(照)(当)(时)(中)(日)(两)(国)(政)(府)(间)(协)(定)(,中)(国)(留)(学)(生)(只)(要)(考)(上)(东)(京)(高)(等)(师)(范)(或)(东)(京)(第)(一)(高)(等)(学)(校)(等)(学)(府)(,便)(可)(享)(受)(中)(国)(政)(府)(的)(官)(费)(待)(遇)(,基)(本)(衣)(食)(无)(忧)(。
  对)(周)(青)(年)(来)(说)(,在)(南)(开)(学)(校)(时)(,已)(经)(学)(过)(数)(理)(化)(等)(课)(程)(,且)(均)(是)(英)(文)(教)(材)(,应)(问)(题)(不)(大)(,但)(来)(到)(日)(本)(后)(,则)(面)(临)(如)(何)(用)(日)(语)(来)(表)(达)(所)(学)(知)(识)(的)(难)(题)(。当)(务)(之)(急)(,是)(如)(何)(迅)(速)(提)(高)(日)(语)(水)(平)(,以)(应)(对)(官)(费)(考)(试)(。周)(恩)(来)(每)(日)(上)(课)(,去)(青)(年)(会)(阅)(报)(,参)(加)(同)(乡)(和)(南)(开)(校)(友)(的)(聚)(会)(,忙)(得)(不)(亦)(乐)(乎)(。在)(东)(京)(,他)(还)(重)(新)(“发)(现)(”了)(国)(内)(出)(版)(的)(《新)(青)(年)(》杂)(志)(,经)(常)(从)(友)(人)(处)(借)(回)(去)(读)(。翌)(年)(1月)(8日)(,接)(堂)(弟)(来)(信)(,得)(知)(淮)(安)(的)(叔)(父)(周)(贻)(奎)(在)(贫)(病)(中)(去)(世)(的)(消)(息)(,“哀)(痛)(异)(常)(,不)(知)(所)(以)(”。升)(学)(的)(压)(力)(,身)(世)(的)(感)(伤)(,前)(途)(的)(漂)(泊)(不)(定)(,周)(青)(年)(的)(苦)(闷)(可)(想)(而)(知)(。他)(立)(志)(发)(奋)(苦)(读)(,考)(取)(官)(费)(。“随)(后)(搬)(到)(一)(租)(金)(低)(廉)(的)(住)(处)(,改)(包)(饭)(为)(零)(买)(,每)(天)(废)(止)(朝)(食)(,以)(节)(省)(开)(支)(。”(《周)(恩)(来)(年)(谱)(》)
  但)(随)(着)(考)(期)(的)(临)(近)(,周)(恩)(来)(内)(心)(的)(焦)(虑)(与)(日)(俱)(增)(。他)(在)(1月)(29日)(的)(日)(记)(中)(写)(道)(:“我)(想)(我)(现)(在)(已)(经)(来)(了)(四)(个)(多)(月)(了)(,日)(文)(、日)(语)(一)(点)(儿)(长)(进)(还)(没)(有)(。眼)(见)(着)(高)(师)(考)(试)(快)(到)(了)(,要)(再)(不)(加)(紧)(用)(功)(,不)(要)(说)(没)(有)(丝)(毫)(取)(的)(望)(,就)(是)(下)(场)(的)(望)(,恐)(怕)(也)(没)(了)(……用)(功)(呀)(,用)(功)(呀)(,时)(候)(不)(再)(给)(我)(留)(了)(。”而)(与)(此)(同)(时)(,他)(又)(痛)(感)(观)(察)(日)(本)(社)(会)(的)(必)(要)(性)(:“人)(要)(是)(把)(精)(神)(放)(在)(是)(处)(,无)(处)(不)(可)(以)(求)(学)(问)(,又)(何)(必)(终)(日)(守)(着)(课)(本)(儿)(,叫)(做)(求)(学)(呢)(?我)(自)(从)(来)(日)(本)(之)(后)(,觉)(得)(事)(事)(都)(可)(以)(用)(求)(学)(的)(眼)(光)(,看)(日)(本)(人)(的)(一)(举)(一)(动)(、一)(切)(的)(行)(事)(,我)(们)(留)(学)(的)(人)(都)(应)(该)(注)(意)(。我)(每)(天)(看)(报)(的)(时)(刻)(,总)(要)(用)(一)(点)(多)(钟)(。虽)(说)(是)(光)(阴)(可)(贵)(,然)(而)(他)(们)(的)(国)(情)(,总)(是)(应)(该)(知)(道)(的)(。”(2月)(4日)(日)(记)()
  时)(光)(如)(梭)(。1918年)(3月)(4日)(至)(6日)(,东)(京)(高)(等)(师)(范)(入)(试)(如)(期)(举)(行)(,日)(语)(、数)(学)(、地)(理)(、历)(史)(、英)(语)(、物)(理)(、化)(学)(、博)(物)(八)(科)(,外)(加)(口)(试)(。周)(青)(年)(落)(第)(。“此)(后)(,为)(准)(备)(七)(月)(投)(考)(东)(京)(第)(一)(高)(等)(学)(校)(,给)(自)(己)(制)(定)(了)(紧)(张)(的)(学)(习)(计)(划)(。”(《周)(恩)(来)(年)(谱)(》)
  其)(间)(,周)(青)(年)(曾)(加)(入)(旅)(日)(中)(国)(留)(学)(生)(爱)(国)(团)(体)(——新)(中)(学)(会)(,并)(发)(表)(了)(关)(于)(“新)(”的)(入)(会)(演)(讲)(,令)(同)(胞)(学)(子)(耳)(目)(一)(新)(。他)(指)(出)(中)(国)(衰)(弱)(的)(原)(因)(,“全)(是)(因)(为)(不)(能)(图)(新)(,又)(不)(能)(保)(旧)(,又)(不)(能)(改)(良)(”的)(缘)(故)(,而)(“泰)(东)(西)(的)(文)(化)(比)(较)(我)(们)(的)(文)(化)(可)(以)(说)(新)(的)(太)(多)(”,“我)(们)(来)(到)(外)(洋)(求)(真)(学)(问)(,就)(应)(该)(造)(成)(一)(种)(泰)(东)(西)(的)(民)(族)(样)(子)(去)(主)(宰)(我)(们)(自)(己)(的)(民)(族)(”。6月)(初)(,“重)(新)(开)(始)(温)(习)(功)(课)(,全)(力)(以)(赴)(准)(备)(考)(试)(”。7月)(2日)(至)(3日)(,参)(加)(东)(京)(第)(一)(高)(等)(学)(校)(入)(试)(,日)(文)(再)(次)(挂)(科)(而)(名)(落)(孙)(山)(。他)(在)(随)(后)(的)(日)(记)(中)(写)(道)(:“这)(叫)(做)(自)(暴)(自)(弃)(,还)(救)(什)(么)(国)(呢)(?爱)(什)(么)(家)(呢)(?不)(考)(取)(官)(文)(学)(校)(,此)(羞)(终)(不)(可)(洗)(。”7月)(28日)(,周)(青)(年)(经)(釜)(山)(回)(天)(津)(探)(亲)(,9月)(4日)(,又)(回)(到)(东)(京)(,准)(备)(以)(厉)(再)(战)(。刚)(好)(这)(时)(,从)(国)(内)(传)(来)(母)(校)(南)(开)(开)(设)(大)(学)(部)(,南)(开)(毕)(业)(生)(可)(免)(试)(升)(大)(学)(的)(消)(息)(。于)(是)(,周)(青)(年)(当)(即)(决)(定)(调)(转)(航)(向)(,回)(国)(就)(学)(。
  回)(头)(来)(看)(,周)(恩)(来)(作)(为)(五)(四)(时)(期)(的)(一)(介)(知)(青)(,挣)(扎)(于)(对)(救)(国)(道)(路)(的)(摸)(索)(和)(对)(个)(人)(前)(途)(的)(焦)(虑)(的)(夹)(缝)(中)(,所)(面)(对)(的)(压)(力)(和)(矛)(盾)(其)(实)(与)(今)(天)(出)(身)(于)(农)(村)(或)(地)(方)(小)(县)(城)(,来)(北)(上)(广)(或)(国)(外)(打)(拼)(的)(80后)(、90后)(颇)(有)(相)(似)(之)(处)(。革)(命)(与)(国)(族)(的)(前)(途)(固)(然)(顶)(重)(要)(,但)(个)(人)(的)(安)(身)(立)(命)(却)(也)(不)(是)(次)(要)(问)(题)(——不)(仅)(不)(次)(要)(,有)(时)(还)(须)(优)(先)(考)(量)(。否)(则)(一)(步)(糗)(棋)(,就)(可)(能)(满)(盘)(皆)(输)(,铸)(成)(终)(生)(“丝)(化)(”的)(大)(错)(,岂)(是)(闹)(着)(玩)(的)(?正)(是)(在)(这)(个)(意)(义)(上)(,百)(年)(前)(“人)(在)(东)(京)(”的)(周)(青)(年)(最)(终)(其)(实)(是)(做)(了)(退)(而)(求)(其)(次)(的)(现)(实)(性)(选)(择)(,而)(今)(天)(绝)(大)(多)(数)(80后)(、90后)(们)(,怕)(也)(只)(有)(向)(现)(实)(妥)(协)(之)(一)(途)(。
  1919年)(4月)(5日)(,周)(恩)(来)(经)(京)(都)(踏)(上)(归)(途)(。在)(京)(都)(小)(作)(停)(留)(,游)(览)(了)(郊)(外)(的)(岚)(山)(,写)(下)(了)(《雨)(中)(岚)(山)(》等)(三)(首)(新)(诗)(:“潇)(潇)(雨)(,雾)(蒙)(浓)(;一)(线)(阳)(光)(穿)(云)(出)(,愈)(见)(姣)(妍)(。人)(间)(的)(万)(象)(真)(理)(,愈)(求)(愈)(模)(糊)(;——模)(糊)(中)(偶)(然)(见)(着)(一)(点)(光)(明)(,真)(愈)(觉)(姣)(妍)(。”在)(日)(本)(接)(触)(了)(河)(上)(肇)(、幸)(德)(秋)(水)(等)(人)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(思)(想)(,又)(刚)(刚)(调)(整)(了)(人)(生)(目)(标)(的)(周)(青)(年)(,这)(时)(对)(自)(身)(前)(途)(等)(问)(题)(的)(思)(考)(,已)(经)(有)(种)(“辩)(证)(法)(”的)(味)(道)(。
  国)(人)(常)(为)(尊)(者)(讳)(,迷)(信)(伟)(人)(、名)(人)(有)(时)(到)(了)(不)(惜)(穿)(凿)(附)(会)(的)(程)(度)(,其)(实)(很)(可)(笑)(,譬)(如)(说)(周)(恩)(来)(是)(罕)(见)(的)(语)(言)(天)(才)(,精)(通)(四)(国)(外)(语)((英)(法)(日)(俄)()云)(云)(。据)(历)(史)(学)(者)(陈)(明)(远)(考)(证)(,“周)(恩)(来)(一)(直)(没)(有)(完)(全)(学)(会)(日)(语)(。后)(来)(的)(外)(交)(文)(献)(也)(表)(明)(:周)(恩)(来)(并)(不)(掌)(握)(日)(语)(会)(话)(。顺)(便)(提)(一)(句)(:周)(恩)(来)(的)(英)(语)(可)(以)(说)(是)(相)(当)(棒)(,但)(他)(的)(法)(语)(和)(俄)(语)(水)(平)(,也)(并)(不)(是)(那)(么)(非)(常)(高)(的)(。”(陈)(明)(远)(:《周)(恩)(来)(留)(学)(日)(本)(遭)(遇)(的)(挫)(折)(》)
  来)(源)(:东)(方)(历)(史)(评)(论)(
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